学术论著 | 王俭勤、周楚等:自我促进的错误记忆效应及其年老化机制

发布者:杨洁发布时间:2022-11-10浏览次数:11

编者按:

本期推荐文章来自心理学系王俭勤青年副研究员、周楚教授等人。


Wang, J., Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Dong, Q., & Zhou, C. (2022). Self-enhanced false memory across the life span. Journal of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 77, 1654-1653.


期刊简介

Journal of Gerontology: Series B 是老年学领域的权威期刊,主要发表心理学、社会学、公共政策等社会科学领域关于人类毕生发展及年老化的理论与实证研究。该期刊为美国老年学会的旗舰期刊,属于SSCI/Q1期刊。


研究成果简介

对于个体尤其是老年人而言,记忆功能的正常运行对其日常活动的顺利开展具有重要意义。一旦记忆出错,相应的判断、决策也有可能出错,带来严重的后果。以往的研究发现了记忆的自我参照效应(self-reference effect),即人们对自我相关的事件记得更牢,这一经典效应亦被写进了心理学的教科书中。然而,从未有研究从自我的角度探究自我对于错误记忆建构的影响。

王俭勤老师的研究团队通过对儿童、青年人、老年人不同年龄群体进行实验,首次发现了自我对错误记忆的促进作用,即自我相关的事件记忆更容易受到“扭曲”。自我能够促进人们对于信息的激活与“绑定”加工,使得记忆在这一过程中更加容易被重新建构,从而导致错误记忆。王俭勤老师研究团队在这一研究主题下已获得数项研究成果,该效应在儿童、青年人、老年人群体中均得到验证,被命名为自我促进的错误记忆效应(Self-enhanced False Memory Effect)。该研究成果是对经典自我参照效应的重要补充,且揭示了自我对错误记忆影响的年老化机制。


Abstract

Objectives: The role of self in veridical memory has been extensively studied, but what is the role of self in false memory development across the life span? The current study examined the impact of self-reference on associative false memory in children, younger adults, and older adults, and further investigated possible mechanisms concerning how self-reference might affect false memory in different age groups.

Methods: Combining a self-reference manipulation with the Deese/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm, children, younger adults, and older adults encoded DRM word lists as paired with their own name, another person’s name, or a red square. Later their true and false recognition memory as well as recollection and familiarity were measured.

Results: A self-enhanced false memory effect was found in all age groups. That is, participants generated more false memories in the self-reference condition relative to the other-reference and neutral conditions. Furthermore, when examining its underlying memory mechanisms, we found that self-reference mainly increased false recollection in younger adults but facilitated familiarity of critical lures in older adults.

Discussion: Although self-reference increases false memory in both younger and older adults, the underlying mechanisms are different in that older adults have more self-relevant false familiarity while younger adults generate more self-relevant phantom recollection. The current study also has implications for eyewitness reports, suggesting that the self-relevance of memory may be one relevant factor to consider when evaluating potential risk factors of false memory.


作者简介

王俭勤(WANG Jianqin),现任世界杯买球官网青年副研究员,上海市浦江人才。国际应用心理学会法律心理学分会理事会成员,欧洲心理学与法律学会会员,美国心理学会法律心理学分会会员。主要研究领域为认知心理学和法律心理学,研究兴趣包括记忆的可塑性及其对行为的影响、目击证人记忆、决策偏好及其年老化神经机制等。主要成果发表在Journal of Memory and Language、Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition、Journal of Experimental Psychology: General、Journal of Gerontology等期刊,已累计发表SSCI期刊论文二十余篇。


周楚(ZHOU Chu),现任2022卡塔尔世界杯买球官网副院长,心理学系教授,上海市心理学会常务理事,上海市浦江人才、晨光学者,世界杯买球官网卓学学者。主要从事记忆领域研究,研究兴趣涉及建构性记忆与记忆扭曲、情景记忆与想象未来、记忆与决策、记忆的年老化机制及其神经基础等。主持国家自然科学基金、教育部人文社会科学研究规划项目等多项。在国内外学术期刊及会议上发表论文50余篇,出版《错误记忆》学术专著1部,担任卫健委“十三五“规划教材副主编1部,曾获省部级科研奖励5项。



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